Пример #1
0
def rational_algorithm(f, x, k, order=4, full=False):
    """Rational algorithm for computing
    formula of coefficients of Formal Power Series
    of a function.

    Applicable when f(x) or some derivative of f(x)
    is a rational function in x.

    :func:`rational_algorithm` uses :func:`apart` function for partial fraction
    decomposition. :func:`apart` by default uses 'undetermined coefficients
    method'. By setting ``full=True``, 'Bronstein's algorithm' can be used
    instead.

    Looks for derivative of a function up to 4'th order (by default).
    This can be overriden using order option.

    Returns
    =======

    formula : Expr
    ind : Expr
        Independent terms.
    order : int

    Examples
    ========

    >>> from sympy import log, atan, I
    >>> from sympy.series.formal import rational_algorithm as ra
    >>> from sympy.abc import x, k

    >>> ra(1 / (1 - x), x, k)
    (1, 0, 0)
    >>> ra(log(1 + x), x, k)
    (-(-1)**(-k)/k, 0, 1)

    >>> ra(atan(x), x, k, full=True)
    ((-I*(-I)**(-k)/2 + I*I**(-k)/2)/k, 0, 1)

    Notes
    =====

    By setting ``full=True``, range of admissible functions to be solved using
    ``rational_algorithm`` can be increased. This option should be used
    carefully as it can signifcantly slow down the computation as ``doit`` is
    performed on the :class:`RootSum` object returned by the ``apart`` function.
    Use ``full=False`` whenever possible.

    See Also
    ========

    sympy.polys.partfrac.apart

    References
    ==========

    .. [1] Formal Power Series - Dominik Gruntz, Wolfram Koepf
    .. [2] Power Series in Computer Algebra - Wolfram Koepf
    """
    from sympy.polys import RootSum, apart
    from sympy.integrals import integrate

    diff = f
    ds = []  # list of diff

    for i in range(order + 1):
        if i:
            diff = diff.diff(x)

        if diff.is_rational_function(x):
            coeff, sep = S.Zero, S.Zero

            terms = apart(diff, x, full=full)
            if terms.has(RootSum):
                terms = terms.doit()

            for t in Add.make_args(terms):
                num, den = t.as_numer_denom()
                if not den.has(x):
                    sep += t
                else:
                    if isinstance(den, Mul):
                        # m*(n*x - a)**j -> (n*x - a)**j
                        ind = den.as_independent(x)
                        den = ind[1]
                        num /= ind[0]

                    # (n*x - a)**j -> (x - b)
                    den, j = den.as_base_exp()
                    a, xterm = den.as_coeff_add(x)

                    # term -> m/x**n
                    if not a:
                        sep += t
                        continue

                    xc = xterm[0].coeff(x)
                    a /= -xc
                    num /= xc**j

                    ak = ((-1)**j * num *
                          binomial(j + k - 1, k).rewrite(factorial) /
                          a**(j + k))
                    coeff += ak

            # Hacky, better way?
            if coeff is S.Zero:
                return None
            if (coeff.has(x) or coeff.has(zoo) or coeff.has(oo) or
                    coeff.has(nan)):
                return None

            for j in range(i):
                coeff = (coeff / (k + j + 1))
                sep = integrate(sep, x)
                sep += (ds.pop() - sep).limit(x, 0)  # constant of integration
            return (coeff.subs(k, k - i), sep, i)

        else:
            ds.append(diff)

    return None
Пример #2
0
def eval_sum_symbolic(f, limits):
    from sympy.functions import harmonic, bernoulli

    f_orig = f
    (i, a, b) = limits
    if not f.has(i):
        return f*(b - a + 1)

    # Linearity
    if f.is_Mul:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()

        if not L.has(i):
            sR = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))
            if sR:
                return L*sR

        if not R.has(i):
            sL = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
            if sL:
                return R*sL

        try:
            f = apart(f, i)  # see if it becomes an Add
        except PolynomialError:
            pass

    if f.is_Add:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()
        lrsum = telescopic(L, R, (i, a, b))

        if lrsum:
            return lrsum

        lsum = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
        rsum = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))

        if None not in (lsum, rsum):
            r = lsum + rsum
            if not r is S.NaN:
                return r

    # Polynomial terms with Faulhaber's formula
    n = Wild('n')
    result = f.match(i**n)

    if result is not None:
        n = result[n]

        if n.is_Integer:
            if n >= 0:
                if (b is S.Infinity and not a is S.NegativeInfinity) or \
                   (a is S.NegativeInfinity and not b is S.Infinity):
                    return S.Infinity
                return ((bernoulli(n + 1, b + 1) - bernoulli(n + 1, a))/(n + 1)).expand()
            elif a.is_Integer and a >= 1:
                if n == -1:
                    return harmonic(b) - harmonic(a - 1)
                else:
                    return harmonic(b, abs(n)) - harmonic(a - 1, abs(n))

    if not (a.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity) or
            b.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity)):
        # Geometric terms
        c1 = Wild('c1', exclude=[i])
        c2 = Wild('c2', exclude=[i])
        c3 = Wild('c3', exclude=[i])
        wexp = Wild('wexp')

        # Here we first attempt powsimp on f for easier matching with the
        # exponential pattern, and attempt expansion on the exponent for easier
        # matching with the linear pattern.
        e = f.powsimp().match(c1 ** wexp)
        if e is not None:
            e_exp = e.pop(wexp).expand().match(c2*i + c3)
            if e_exp is not None:
                e.update(e_exp)

        if e is not None:
            p = (c1**c3).subs(e)
            q = (c1**c2).subs(e)

            r = p*(q**a - q**(b + 1))/(1 - q)
            l = p*(b - a + 1)

            return Piecewise((l, Eq(q, S.One)), (r, True))

        r = gosper_sum(f, (i, a, b))

        if not r in (None, S.NaN):
            return r

    return eval_sum_hyper(f_orig, (i, a, b))
Пример #3
0
def eval_sum_symbolic(f, limits):
    (i, a, b) = limits
    if not f.has(i):
        return f*(b-a+1)

    # Linearity
    if f.is_Mul:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()

        if not L.has(i):
            sR = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))
            if sR: return L*sR

        if not R.has(i):
            sL = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
            if sL: return R*sL

        try:
            f = apart(f, i) # see if it becomes an Add
        except PolynomialError:
            pass

    if f.is_Add:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()
        lrsum = telescopic(L, R, (i, a, b))

        if lrsum:
            return lrsum

        lsum = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
        rsum = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))

        if None not in (lsum, rsum):
            return lsum + rsum

    # Polynomial terms with Faulhaber's formula
    n = Wild('n')
    result = f.match(i**n)

    if result is not None:
        n = result[n]

        if n.is_Integer:
            if n >= 0:
                return ((C.bernoulli(n+1, b+1) - C.bernoulli(n+1, a))/(n+1)).expand()
            elif a.is_Integer and a >= 1:
                if n == -1:
                    return C.harmonic(b) - C.harmonic(a - 1)
                else:
                    return C.harmonic(b, abs(n)) - C.harmonic(a - 1, abs(n))

    # Geometric terms
    c1 = C.Wild('c1', exclude=[i])
    c2 = C.Wild('c2', exclude=[i])
    c3 = C.Wild('c3', exclude=[i])

    e = f.match(c1**(c2*i+c3))

    if e is not None:
        c1 = c1.subs(e)
        c2 = c2.subs(e)
        c3 = c3.subs(e)

        # TODO: more general limit handling
        return c1**c3 * (c1**(a*c2) - c1**(c2+b*c2)) / (1 - c1**c2)

    if not (a.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity) or \
            b.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity)):
        r = gosper_sum(f, (i, a, b))

        if not r in (None, S.NaN):
            return r

    return eval_sum_hyper(f, (i, a, b))
def eval_sum_symbolic(f, limits):
    f_orig = f
    (i, a, b) = limits
    if not f.has(i):
        return f*(b - a + 1)

    # Linearity
    if f.is_Mul:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()

        if not L.has(i):
            sR = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))
            if sR:
                return L*sR

        if not R.has(i):
            sL = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
            if sL:
                return R*sL

        try:
            f = apart(f, i)  # see if it becomes an Add
        except PolynomialError:
            pass

    if f.is_Add:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()
        lrsum = telescopic(L, R, (i, a, b))

        if lrsum:
            return lrsum

        lsum = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
        rsum = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))

        if None not in (lsum, rsum):
            r = lsum + rsum
            if not r is S.NaN:
                return r

    # Polynomial terms with Faulhaber's formula
    n = Wild('n')
    result = f.match(i**n)

    if result is not None:
        n = result[n]

        if n.is_Integer:
            if n >= 0:
                if (b is S.Infinity and not a is S.NegativeInfinity) or \
                   (a is S.NegativeInfinity and not b is S.Infinity):
                    return S.Infinity
                return ((C.bernoulli(n + 1, b + 1) - C.bernoulli(n + 1, a))/(n + 1)).expand()
            elif a.is_Integer and a >= 1:
                if n == -1:
                    return C.harmonic(b) - C.harmonic(a - 1)
                else:
                    return C.harmonic(b, abs(n)) - C.harmonic(a - 1, abs(n))

    if not (a.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity) or
            b.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity)):
        # Geometric terms
        c1 = C.Wild('c1', exclude=[i])
        c2 = C.Wild('c2', exclude=[i])
        c3 = C.Wild('c3', exclude=[i])

        e = f.match(c1**(c2*i + c3))

        if e is not None:
            p = (c1**c3).subs(e)
            q = (c1**c2).subs(e)

            r = p*(q**a - q**(b + 1))/(1 - q)
            l = p*(b - a + 1)

            return Piecewise((l, Eq(q, S.One)), (r, True))

        r = gosper_sum(f, (i, a, b))

        if not r in (None, S.NaN):
            return r

    return eval_sum_hyper(f_orig, (i, a, b))
Пример #5
0
def eval_sum_symbolic(f, limits):
    from sympy.functions import harmonic, bernoulli

    f_orig = f
    (i, a, b) = limits
    if not f.has(i):
        return f*(b - a + 1)

    # Linearity
    if f.is_Mul:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()

        if not L.has(i):
            sR = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))
            if sR:
                return L*sR

        if not R.has(i):
            sL = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
            if sL:
                return R*sL

        try:
            f = apart(f, i)  # see if it becomes an Add
        except PolynomialError:
            pass

    if f.is_Add:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()
        lrsum = telescopic(L, R, (i, a, b))

        if lrsum:
            return lrsum

        lsum = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
        rsum = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))

        if None not in (lsum, rsum):
            r = lsum + rsum
            if not r is S.NaN:
                return r

    # Polynomial terms with Faulhaber's formula
    n = Wild('n')
    result = f.match(i**n)

    if result is not None:
        n = result[n]

        if n.is_Integer:
            if n >= 0:
                if (b is S.Infinity and not a is S.NegativeInfinity) or \
                   (a is S.NegativeInfinity and not b is S.Infinity):
                    return S.Infinity
                return ((bernoulli(n + 1, b + 1) - bernoulli(n + 1, a))/(n + 1)).expand()
            elif a.is_Integer and a >= 1:
                if n == -1:
                    return harmonic(b) - harmonic(a - 1)
                else:
                    return harmonic(b, abs(n)) - harmonic(a - 1, abs(n))

    if not (a.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity) or
            b.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity)):
        # Geometric terms
        c1 = Wild('c1', exclude=[i])
        c2 = Wild('c2', exclude=[i])
        c3 = Wild('c3', exclude=[i])
        wexp = Wild('wexp')

        # Here we first attempt powsimp on f for easier matching with the
        # exponential pattern, and attempt expansion on the exponent for easier
        # matching with the linear pattern.
        e = f.powsimp().match(c1 ** wexp)
        if e is not None:
            e_exp = e.pop(wexp).expand().match(c2*i + c3)
            if e_exp is not None:
                e.update(e_exp)

        if e is not None:
            p = (c1**c3).subs(e)
            q = (c1**c2).subs(e)

            r = p*(q**a - q**(b + 1))/(1 - q)
            l = p*(b - a + 1)

            return Piecewise((l, Eq(q, S.One)), (r, True))

        r = gosper_sum(f, (i, a, b))

        if isinstance(r, (Mul,Add)):
            from sympy import ordered, Tuple
            non_limit = r.free_symbols - Tuple(*limits[1:]).free_symbols
            den = denom(together(r))
            den_sym = non_limit & den.free_symbols
            args = []
            for v in ordered(den_sym):
                try:
                    s = solve(den, v)
                    m = Eq(v, s[0]) if s else S.false
                    if m != False:
                        args.append((Sum(f_orig.subs(*m.args), limits).doit(), m))
                    break
                except NotImplementedError:
                    continue

            args.append((r, True))
            return Piecewise(*args)

        if not r in (None, S.NaN):
            return r

    h = eval_sum_hyper(f_orig, (i, a, b))
    if h is not None:
        return h

    factored = f_orig.factor()
    if factored != f_orig:
        return eval_sum_symbolic(factored, (i, a, b))
Пример #6
0
        return f*(b-a+1)

    # Linearity
    if f.is_Mul:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()

        if not L.has(i):
            sR = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))
            if sR: return L*sR

        if not R.has(i):
            sL = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
            if sL: return R*sL

        try:
            f = apart(f, i) # see if it becomes an Add
        except PolynomialError:
            pass

    if f.is_Add:
        L, R = f.as_two_terms()
        lrsum = telescopic(L, R, (i, a, b))

        if lrsum:
            return lrsum

        lsum = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b))
        rsum = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b))

        if None not in (lsum, rsum):
            return lsum + rsum